Sumapaz Páramo is considered the most extensive moorland in the world. The Sumapaz National Natural Park protects this high mountain grassland ecosystem in the Altiplano Cundibohyacense mountain range within the Colombian Andes.
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The Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena hotspot includes the tropical forests of the Pacific coast of northwestern South America and the Galápagos Islands. Stretching from southern Panama to northern Peru, this biodiversity hotspot consists of many endemic species and habitats.
The Yungas is a narrow band of forest along the eastern slope of the Andes Mountains within Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. This humid, subtropical natural region is a transitional zone between the Andean highlands and the eastern forests.