Chapada Diamantina: Chapada Diamantina National Park (Brazil)
Chapada Diamantina National Park is located in the Brazilian state of Bahia. The Chapada Diamantina is a plateau bounded by cliffs which form a watershed, draining on one side into the São Francisco River and on the other into the De Contas River and Paraguaçu River.
The Chapada Diamantina region is located on the Atlantic plateau, within the Brazilian Highlands, in northeastern Brazil. An extension of the Serra do Espinhaço mountain range, it covers approximately 38,000 sq km (15,000 sq mi) and encompasses 58 municipalities.
The region is geographically divided into several mountain groups including the Serra de Rio de Contas, Bastião, Mangabeira, Almas and Sincorá.
Situated in central Bahia state, the Chapada Diamantina plateau is bounded by cliffs. Altitudes in the plateau typically vary from 500 to 1,000 m (1,600 to 3,300 ft). In the more mountainous parts there are several peaks of 1,600 to 1,800 m (5,200 to 5,900 ft), and a few over 2,000 m (6,600 ft).
The plateau forms a watershed, draining on one side into the São Francisco River and on the other into the De Contas River and Paraguaçu River.
Chapada Diamantina National Park
Chapada Diamantina National Park is located in the Chapada Diamantina region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. The terrain is rugged and primarily covered by flora of the Caatinga biome. The park covers 152,142 ha (375,950 acres) and is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation.
The National Park lies in the rugged Sincorá Range in the east of the plateau, an area of folded and heavily eroded structures. The range is elongated in a north-south direction, and has an average width of 25 km (16 mi). The highest point of the state is in the park, the 2,036 m (6,680 ft) Pico do Barbado.
The range forces moist air moving west from sea upward which causes higher levels of rainfall, particularly in the east. There are many systems of caves formed by the rivers of the region.
Another important aspect is the presence of prehistoric archaeological sites from the pre-Columbian period which are often represented by rock paintings.
The National Park contains a large mosaic of unique types of vegetation, in a unique combination of three biomes: caatinga, cerrado and Atlantic Forest.
Vegetation includes typical Caatinga xerophytic formations at altitudes from about 500 to 900 m (1,600 to 3,000 ft), Atlantic Forest vegetation along the watercourses, meadows and rocky fields higher up.
About two-thirds of the National park is covered by rupestrian fields with endemic species such as the lily Hippeastrum solandrifoliu; the bromeliads Alcantarea nahoumii, Cryptanthus diamantinense, Orthophythum amoenum and O. burlemarsii; the eleven-hour Portulaca wendermanii; the orchids Sophronitis bahiensis, S. pfisterii, S. sincorana and Thelychista ghyllanyi; candombá Vellozia sincorana; the cinnamon V. punctulata; the Ilex paraguariensis var.sincorensis, among numerous others.
The hooded visorbearer (Augastes lumachellus) hummingbird is endemic. There are few large mammals but there are many species of small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and insects.
Protected birds in the reserve include white-necked hawk (Buteogallus lacernulatus), Chaco eagle (Buteogallus coronatus), Bahia tyrannulet (Phylloscartes beckeri), ochre-marked parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) and Bahia spinetail (Synallaxis whitneyi).
Other protected species include Barbara Brown's titi (Callicebus barbarabrownae), cougar (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).