Belize: Cultural Landscape

Belize: Cultural Landscape

Sat, 05/27/2023 - 20:09
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Belize, located in Central America, has a vibrant and diverse cultural landscape shaped by its rich history and the convergence of various ethnic groups. The Mayan civilization, British colonialism, African heritage, and the presence of indigenous communities influence the country's cultural fabric.

The Cultural Landscape of Belize

Belize, located in Central America, has a vibrant and diverse cultural landscape shaped by its rich history and the convergence of various ethnic groups. The country's cultural fabric is influenced by the Mayan civilization, British colonialism, African heritage, and the presence of Garifuna, Mestizo, and Creole communities.

  • Mayan Heritage: The ancient Mayan civilization profoundly impacted Belize, and remnants of their culture can still be found today. Maya ruins such as Caracol, Xunantunich, and Lamanai attract tourists and provide insight into the country's historical roots. In addition, many indigenous Maya communities continue to preserve their traditions, language, and craftsmanship.

  • Garifuna Culture: The Garifuna people have a strong presence in Belize, particularly along the southern coastal regions. They are descendants of West African, Carib, and Arawak peoples who settled in the area in the 18th century. Garifuna culture is renowned for its vibrant music, dance, drumming, and cuisine, including traditional dishes like hudut (fish stew) and cassava bread.

  • Mestizo Influence: The Mestizo population, descendants of Spanish and Indigenous Maya peoples, form a significant part of Belize's cultural landscape. Their influence can be seen in language, music, dance, and cuisine. In addition, Mestizo communities celebrate traditional events such as the Fiesta de San Joaquin, showcasing their unique cultural practices.

  • Creole Heritage: The Creole community, descended from enslaved Africans and European settlers, is integral to Belize's cultural tapestry. They have contributed significantly to the country's music, cuisine, and language, known as Belize Creole or Kriol. In addition, festivals like the annual Garifuna Settlement Day and the September Celebrations reflect Creole heritage and bring together people from different backgrounds.

  • Cultural Fusion: Belize's cultural landscape results from the fusion of various ethnic groups, resulting in a diverse and inclusive society. As a result, people of diverse backgrounds coexist and celebrate each other's customs and traditions. This multicultural atmosphere is evident in the vibrant street festivals, music concerts, art exhibitions, and local markets that showcase the country's cultural richness.

  • Language and Cuisine: English is the official language of Belize, but Spanish, Belize Creole, Garifuna, and Maya languages (such as Yucatec and Q'eqchi') are also spoken. Belizean cuisine reflects the country's multicultural heritage, blending Mayan, Garifuna, Mestizo, and Creole flavors. Dishes like rice and beans, stewed chicken, tamales, and seafood are popular and widely enjoyed.

  • Ecotourism and Nature: Belize's natural beauty, including its stunning coral reefs, lush rainforests, and diverse wildlife, contributes to its cultural landscape. In addition, the country's commitment to ecotourism and environmental conservation has shaped its identity, attracting visitors who appreciate the harmony between nature and culture.

Contemporary Influences on Belizean Culture

The following are a few examples of how contemporary influences shape Belizean culture. The country is unique and vibrant, and its culture constantly evolves.

  • Globalization: Belize is a small country with a population of just over 300,000 people. As a result, globalization has influenced it to a greater extent than some other countries in the region. This is due to the increased flow of goods, people, and ideas between Belize and other parts of the world.

  • Immigration: Belize has a long history of immigration, which continues to be a significant factor in shaping the country's culture. In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of immigrants from Mexico, Guatemala, and the United States. These immigrants have brought their own cultures with them, which has added to the diversity of Belizean society.

  • Technology: Technology is another significant influence on Belizean culture. The Internet and mobile phones have become ubiquitous in Belize, profoundly impacting how people communicate, learn, and consume entertainment.

  • The Arts: The arts are also a significant force in Belizean culture. The country has a thriving theater scene, a vibrant music scene, and a growing visual arts scene. The arts are a way for Belizeans to express their identity and connect.

Challenges Facing Belizean Culture

The following are just some of the challenges facing Belizean culture today. The country faces several complex challenges but is also a resilient society with a rich culture. It remains to be seen how Belizeans will overcome these challenges and shape their culture in the future.

  • Economic Inequality: Belize has a relatively high level of economic inequality. This is due to several factors, including the country's history of colonialism, reliance on natural resources, and proximity to Mexico. The economic disparity is causing social tensions and is making it difficult for Belizeans to share in the country's economic prosperity.

  • Environmental Degradation: Belize faces several environmental challenges, including deforestation, pollution, and climate change. These challenges harm the country's natural resources and threaten many Belizeans' livelihoods.

  • Political Instability: Belize has a long history of political instability. The country has experienced several coups and periods of civil unrest in recent decades. This instability makes it difficult for the government to address the country's challenges.

  • Violence: Belize has a relatively high level of violence compared to other countries in Central America. This violence challenges Belizean culture, making it difficult for the country to maintain its reputation as a safe and peaceful destination.

  • Immigration: Belize has a long history of welcoming immigrants, a significant factor in shaping the country's culture. However, the recent influx of immigrants from Guatemala, Mexico, and the United States has strained the country's resources and led to some social tension.

Official flag of Belize

The official flag of Belize.

Cultural Geography of Belize

Largest Cities / Metro Areas

Ranked by population estimate (2023):

  1. Belize City (61,400): The largest city of Belize and the former capital of British Honduras, Belize City is the country's principal port and business hub. It is located at the mouth of Haulover Creek, a distributary of the Belize River, along the country's northeastern Caribbean coast. It is a diverse city; Creoles are the major ethnic group, and English is the most spoken language, followed by Kriol.

  2. San Ignacio (26,100): San Ignacio serves as the cultural-economic hub of the Cayo District in western Belize. Lying along the Belize River, near the border with Guatemala, the city makes up the country's second-largest urban area, along with its sister town of Santa Elena. The diverse population includes Mestizo, Kriol, and Maya.

  3. San Pedro (17,400: Located in the southern part of Ambergris Caye along the Belize Barrier Reef, San Pedro, which was once a sleepy fishing village, was granted the status of a town in 1984. San Pedro's inhabitants are known as San Pedranos; most originally came from Mexico.

  4. Orange Walk Town (15,300): The fourth-largest town in Belize, Orange Walk Town is the capital of the Orange Walk District. It is located on the left bank of the New River, approximately 87 km (54 mi) north of Belize City. About 78% of the population identifies as Indigenous Latino, and 11% identify as Mennonite.

  5. Belmopan (13,300): Belmopan has been the capital of Belize since 1970 when the government moved from Belize City after that city's near destruction by a hurricane in 1961. It is located in the Cayo District at 76 m (249 ft) above sea level. Its population is of mixed ethnicities.

  6. Dangriga (10,700): Dangriga, formerly known as Stann Creek Town, is located on the southern Caribbean coast of Belize at the mouth of the North Stann Creek River. It is the capital of the Stann Creek District and the largest settlement in southern Belize. The population is mainly a mixture of Garinagu, Kriols, and Mestizos.

  7. Corozal (9,800): Corozal Town is the capital of the Corozal District in northern Belize, approximately 15 km (9 mi) from the border with Mexico. Built over an ancient Mayan city, Corozal was founded in 1848 by refugees from the Mayan uprising against the Spanish in neighboring Yucatán.

  8. Benque Viejo del Carmen (6,600): Benque is the westernmost town in Belize, at the Guatemalan border. The population is primarily Mestizo. San Ignacio lies 13 km (8 mi) to the east, and Melchor de Mencos is just across the border in Guatemala. The Mopan River runs along the town's north and west edges.

  9. Ladyville (5,400): Ladyville is located on the north bank of the Belize River and is approximately 5 miles inland from the Caribbean Sea. The village has become a suburb of Belize City, about 13 km (8 mi) to the southeast.

  10. Punta Gorda (5,200): Punta Gorda is the capital and largest town of Toledo District in southern Belize. It is a seaport and fishing village. Its inhabitants primarily have Garifuna, East Indian, Kriol, and Maya descent.

Map of Belize

CIA map of Belize.

Administrative Divisions

The administrative divisions of Belize include six districts. Each district has a capital city. The districts are further divided into 31 constituencies.


The six districts are located in different geographic regions of the country. Here's how they fit into these regions:

  1. Corozal (Capital: Corozal Town): This district is located in the northernmost part of Belize and is part of the Northern Region. It shares a border with Mexico and is known for its agricultural activities, including sugarcane farming.

  2. Orange Walk (Capital: Orange Walk Town): Located in the northwestern part of Belize, the Orange Walk District is also part of the Northern Region. It is known for its vast sugar cane fields and diverse cultural heritage, including a significant Mestizo population.

  3. Belize (Capital: Belize City): The Belize District is located in the east-central part of the country and is home to Belize City, the country's largest city. This district includes various offshore islands and cays. Part of the Central Region, it encompasses urban and rural areas.

  4. Cayo (Capital: San Ignacio): Situated in the western part of Belize, the Cayo District is the largest district in the country. It is part of the Western Region known for its stunning natural landscapes, including the Maya Mountains, rivers, waterfalls, and ancient Maya ruins such as Xunantunich and Caracol.

  5. Stann Creek (Capital Dangriga): Located along the southeastern coast of Belize, the Stann Creek District is part of the Southern Region. It includes the coastal town of Dangriga, formerly known as "Stann Creek Town," and the popular tourist destinations of Placencia and Hopkins. The district is known for its beautiful beaches, marine reserves, and the rich cultural heritage of the Garifuna people.

  6. Toledo (Capital: Punta Gorda): Toledo is Belize's southernmost and least populous district and is also part of the Southern Region. It is known for its lush rainforests, pristine rivers, and diverse wildlife. The district is home to several indigenous communities, including the Maya, and offers opportunities for ecotourism and exploration.

Map illustrating the administrative divisions of Belize

Map illustrating the administrative divisions of Belize.

Border Dispute

Throughout history, Guatemala has claimed sovereignty over all or part of Belizean territory. However, the border dispute remains unresolved and contentious.

Geopolitical Regions (Zones)

Belize is divided into six geopolitical regions or zones characterized by their unique landscapes, natural features, and cultural aspects. These six zones showcase the country's diverse natural beauty, cultural heritage, and adventure opportunities. In addition, each region has its unique attractions, making the country a captivating destination for nature lovers, history enthusiasts, and those seeking tropical adventures.

Northern Belize (North)

This region encompasses the northernmost part of Belize and is predominantly flat with fertile soil. It is known for its agricultural activities, including sugar cane and citrus fruit cultivation. The area is also home to the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, which protects a diverse range of flora and fauna.

Belize District (Central)

Located along the eastern coast, the Belize District is home to the country's largest city, Belize City. This region includes offshore islands, mangrove forests, and coastal wetlands. It is a commerce, tourism, and transportation hub, with historical sites such as the Belize City Swing Bridge and the Belize Museum.

Belize Cayes (Central)

The Belize Cayes refer to the numerous islands situated off the coast of Belize, including the popular tourist destination of Ambergris Caye. These islands offer stunning beaches, crystal-clear waters, and vibrant coral reefs. In addition, the Cayes are renowned for their marine biodiversity, making them a prime spot for snorkeling, diving, and fishing.

Interior Belize (Central)

The central interior of Belize comprises lush jungles, rolling hills, and expansive savannas. This region is home to wildlife sanctuaries and reserves, such as the Community Baboon Sanctuary and the Crooked Tree Wildlife Sanctuary. Visitors can enjoy activities like wildlife spotting, cave exploration, and immersing themselves in the area's rich biodiversity.

Western Belize (West)

The Maya Mountains and vast expanses of tropical rainforests characterize this region. It has numerous national parks and protected areas, including the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve and the Caracol Archaeological Reserve. Western Belize offers opportunities for outdoor activities like hiking, birdwatching, and exploring ancient Maya ruins.

Southern Belize (South)

The southern region is known for its diverse ecosystems, including coastal plains, rivers, wetlands, and the stunning Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System. This UNESCO World Heritage site is a haven for marine life and offers exceptional diving and snorkeling experiences. The region also features cultural attractions like the vibrant Garifuna communities in towns like Dangriga and Hopkins.

Belize physiographic map

Belize physiographic map.

Historical, Cultural, and Natural Landmarks

Belize boasts a rich blend of historical, cultural, and natural landmarks. Its historical sites provide insight into its Maya heritage, while its diverse cultural experiences and natural wonders make it a unique destination.


Northern Belize is known for its rich cultural heritage, vibrant wildlife, and beautiful natural landscapes. Here are some popular attractions in the Northern region:

  • Lamanai: Lamanai is one of Belize's largest and most impressive Mayan archaeological sites. Visitors can explore ancient temples, plazas, and ceremonial structures near the New River Lagoon. Lamanai is also known for its abundant wildlife, including howler monkeys and crocodiles.

  • Corozal Town: Corozal is a charming town near the border with Mexico, known for its friendly atmosphere and historical sites. Explore the town's central square, visit the Santa Rita Archaeological Site, and learn about the history and culture of the region.

  • Shipstern Nature Reserve: In the Corozal District, Shipstern Nature Reserve is a protected area encompassing diverse ecosystems, including wetlands, savannas, and tropical forests. Visitors can hike through the reserve, go birdwatching, or take boat tours to explore the mangrove forests and spot wildlife.

  • Crooked Tree Wildlife Sanctuary: Crooked Tree is a small village on a lagoon surrounded by a vast wetland ecosystem. The Crooked Tree Wildlife Sanctuary is home to various bird species, including the iconic Jabiru stork. Visitors can take boat tours or go birdwatching to observe the rich avian life.

  • Altun Ha: Altun Ha is another important Mayan archaeological site in Northern Belize. It features impressive pyramids and ceremonial plazas, and visitors can climb to the top of the main temple for panoramic views of the surrounding area.

  • Bacalar Chico National Park and Marine Reserve: Situated on the northern tip of Ambergris Caye, Bacalar Chico is a protected area encompassing terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Visitors can snorkel or dive in the clear waters to explore the vibrant coral reefs, swim with tropical fish, and even encounter manatees.

  • Sarteneja: Sarteneja is a coastal village known for its fishing heritage and relaxing beach atmosphere. It offers beautiful beaches, opportunities for water sports, and a chance to interact with the local community. Visitors can also take boat tours to explore nearby cayes and observe marine life.

  • Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area: The Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area is a vast protected area in Northern Belize. It is home to diverse wildlife, including jaguars, tapirs, and numerous bird species. Visitors can take guided tours to explore the trails, spot wildlife, and learn about conservation efforts.

These attractions in Northern Belize offer a blend of history, nature, and cultural experiences, allowing visitors to immerse themselves in the region's unique beauty and heritage.


Central Belize offers a variety of attractions that cater to different interests. Here are some popular attractions in the Central region:

  • Belize City: As the country's largest city and commercial hub, Belize City has several attractions worth exploring. You can visit the Museum of Belize to learn about the country's history, explore the ancient ruins of Altun Ha, or stroll along the waterfront at the Belize City Swing Bridge.

  • Belize Zoo: Located west of Belize City, the Belize Zoo is a renowned wildlife conservation center. It focuses on showcasing native species in their natural habitats. You can see various animals like jaguars, tapirs, monkeys, and toucans.

  • Belmopan: Belmopan is the capital city of Belize and offers a calmer and more laid-back atmosphere than Belize City. Here, you can visit the Government House, explore the National Assembly building, or relax in the tranquil surroundings of the Guanacaste National Park.

  • Blue Hole National Park: Situated near Belmopan, it is named after its striking geological feature, the Blue Hole. It is a giant sinkhole filled with turquoise waters, surrounded by lush rainforest. Visitors can swim, dive, or explore the park's hiking trails.

  • St. Herman's Cave: Located within the Blue Hole National Park, St. Herman's Cave is an impressive underground cave system. Visitors can take guided tours to explore the caverns, view ancient Mayan artifacts, and learn about the cave's geological formations.

  • Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve: This vast protected area is known for its pine forests, waterfalls, and natural wonders. You can visit attractions such as Thousand Foot Falls, Rio On Pools, and Big Rock Falls. The reserve is also home to the stunning Caracol Maya Ruins, one of Belize's most significant archaeological sites.

  • Actun Tunichil Muknal (ATM) Cave: Considered one of the most sacred caves in the Maya underworld, ATM Cave is an archaeological site and natural wonder. Adventurous visitors can take guided tours to explore the cave's intricate chambers and view ancient Mayan artifacts, including skeletal remains and ceremonial pottery.

  • Community Baboon Sanctuary: Located north of Belize City, the Community Baboon Sanctuary is a unique community-led conservation project. It aims to protect the habitat of the black howler monkey, locally known as the baboon. Visitors can take guided tours to observe these primates in their natural environment.

These attractions offer a glimpse into Belize's rich natural and cultural heritage, providing diverse experiences for visitors to Central Belize.


Western Belize is known for its stunning natural landscapes, ancient Maya sites, and adventure activities. Here are some attractions in the Western region:

  • San Ignacio: Serving as the gateway to Western Belize, San Ignacio is a vibrant town with a lively atmosphere. It offers easy access to various attractions and is a popular base for exploring the region. You can explore local markets, visit the Cahal Pech Maya Ruins, or participate in cultural activities.

  • Xunantunich: Located near San Ignacio, Xunantunich is an impressive Maya archaeological site. The main attraction is El Castillo, a magnificent pyramid that offers panoramic views of the surrounding area. In addition, you can explore the ancient plazas, temples, and royal residences while learning about Maya history and culture.

  • Barton Creek Cave: This cave system is a popular attraction for adventurous travelers. You can go on guided canoe tours through the cave, observing stalactites, stalagmites, and ancient Maya artifacts. In addition, it's a unique opportunity to experience the mystical ambiance of an underground river.

  • Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve: Extending into Western Belize, the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve offers a range of attractions. You can visit the Rio On Pools, a series of natural pools and cascades ideal for swimming and relaxing. Another highlight is Big Rock Falls, a picturesque waterfall with a swimming area. The reserve also features scenic viewpoints, hiking trails, and opportunities for birdwatching.

  • Caracol: Caracol is one of the most important Maya sites in Belize. It was once a prominent political and economic center and is home to the tallest artificial structure in the country, the Caana (Sky Palace). Exploring Caracol allows you to appreciate ancient Maya architecture and gain insights into their civilization.

  • Rio Frio Cave: Located within the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve, it is a massive limestone cave with a river flowing through it. Visitors can walk along the riverbank, admiring the impressive stalactites and stalagmites while enjoying the cool, serene atmosphere inside the cave.

  • Macal River: The Macal River is a scenic waterway that flows through western Belize, providing opportunities for kayaking, canoeing, and river tubing. Exploring the river allows you to witness the region's lush vegetation, spot wildlife, and enjoy a peaceful outdoor experience.

These attractions in Western Belize offer a combination of history, natural beauty, and adventure, providing visitors with diverse experiences.


Southern Belize is known for its pristine natural beauty, stunning coastline, and diverse marine life. Here are some popular attractions in the Southern region:

  • Placencia: Placencia is a charming coastal village with beautiful sandy beaches and a laid-back atmosphere. Visitors can enjoy swimming, sunbathing, and water sports activities. The town also offers a range of restaurants, bars, and shops. From Placencia, you can explore nearby attractions like Laughing Bird Caye National Park and the Silk Cayes.

  • Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary: Known as the world's first jaguar preserve, Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary is a vast protected area teeming with tropical rainforests, waterfalls, and diverse wildlife. Visitors can hike the nature trails, spot exotic birds, and learn about jaguar conservation efforts.

  • Hopkins: Hopkins is a Garifuna village known for its vibrant culture, music, and delicious cuisine. Visitors can immerse themselves in the local traditions, enjoy drumming and dancing performances, and savor traditional Garifuna dishes. The village is also a gateway to exploring the nearby Barrier Reef and marine activities.

  • Glover's Reef Atoll: Located offshore from the coast of Southern Belize, Glover's Reef Atoll is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a paradise for divers and snorkelers. This pristine coral atoll offers excellent visibility, deep coral formations, and abundant marine life, including sea turtles, rays, and colorful fish.

  • Blue Creek Cave: Also known as Hokeb Ha Cave, Blue Creek Cave is a stunning underground cave system with crystal-clear blue waters. Visitors can take guided tours to swim or float on inner tubes through the cave, admiring the beautiful rock formations and learning about the cave's history and geology.

  • Maya Beach: Maya Beach is a serene and picturesque stretch of coastline located near Placencia. It offers tranquil beaches, clear waters, and a relaxed atmosphere. Visitors can swim, sunbathe, or enjoy the breathtaking views of the Caribbean Sea.

  • Nim Li Punit: In the Toledo District, Nim Li Punit is a Mayan archaeological site featuring impressive stelae (carved stone monuments) and plazas. It is open to visitors and offers a unique opportunity to explore an ancient Maya site in a tranquil and scenic setting.

  • Rio Blanco National Park: Situated near the village of Santa Cruz, Rio Blanco National Park is a tropical rainforest reserve with beautiful waterfalls, natural pools, and diverse wildlife. Visitors can hike through the lush forest, swim in the refreshing waters, and spot colorful birds and other wildlife.

These attractions showcase the natural beauty, cultural richness, and historical significance of Southern Belize. So whether you're looking for beach relaxation, adventure in the rainforest, or exploring ancient Maya ruins, Southern Belize offers a range of experiences to suit different interests.

Map depicting the regions of Belize

Map depicting the regions of Belize.