The Espinhaço Mountain Range represents the largest and most continuous Precambrian orogenic belt in Brazil. The extent of the Espinhaço Range Biosphere Reserve include 16 protected areas including National Parks, State Parks, State Ecological Stations and Municipal Natural Parks.
The Espinhaço Mountains are a mountain range in Brazil. The range runs roughly north and south through the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, extending for approximately 1,100 km (680 mi). The historic town of Diamantina is located in these mountains.
Pico do Sol, the highest peak, rises to 2,072 m (6,798 ft). Along the length of the cordillera, alternating elevations allow for an enormous diversity of climate and rainfall conditions.
Since the early 18th century these mountains have been mined for gold, diamonds, and semiprecious stones. They are now economically important chiefly for their vast store of high-grade iron ore and manganese. The mountains are also the world’s chief source of quartz crystals.
The Espinhaço Mountains represents the largest and most continuous Precambrian orogenic belt of Brazil's territory, serving as a water divider between the São Francisco River basin and the river basins that drain directly into the Atlantic Ocean, including the Doce, the Jequitinhonha and the Pardo rivers.
Espinhaço Range Biosphere Reserve
The Espinhaço Range Biosphere Reserve is not a single block and there is a discontinuity in northern Minas Gerais, which divides the cordillera into two segments.
There are 16 protected areas (National Parks, State Parks, State Ecological Stations and Municipal Natural Parks), which form the core areas.
In addition to natural values, there are cultural assets such as the colonial towns of Ouro Preto, Congonhas, and Diamantina, as well as artistic and religious manifestations that are still kept alive along the entire length of the cordillera.
At elevations over 500 m (1,600 ft) of the range, a unique phytophysionomy in the world – the "rupestrian fields" – dominate. This type of vegetation is predominantly composed of a more or less continuous herbaceous stratum and small, sclerophyllous evergreen bushes.
Although only a small number of areas have been intensely inventoried, it is estimated that there are approximately 3000 plant species. 30% of the taxa are estimated to be exclusive to the rupestrian fields, which would represent approximately 1000 to 2000 endemic species.
A high level of endemism is also observed in the fauna: endemic birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and fishes have been recorded.
The extent of the Biosphere Reserve (over 3 million ha or 7.5 million acres) and its biological, geomorphological and historical importance justify the implementation of measures aimed at the preservation of this mountain complex.
The population of the Biosphere Reserve is approximately 642,000 and includes the indigenous group of Pataxó, several quilombola (runaway slave) communities, religious groups or existentialist sects, as well as the people living in 'gold towns' that were built by bandeiras.
Bandeiras were groups of explorers looking for gold in the 18th century who built mining centers, ranches and register posts which eventually developed into commercial centers and later on into cities and districts.