The Los Volcanes Biosphere Reserve surrounds the Popocatepetl and Ixtaccíhuatl volcanoes, Mexico's second and third highest peaks, as well as Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park. The area's diverse ecosystems consist of pine-oak forests and high mountain prairies.
Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park
Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park protects nearly 40,000 ha (99,000 acres) surrounding Mexico's second and third-highest peaks, the Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl volcanoes.
Established in 1935 and situated in the states of México, Puebla, and Morelos, it is one of the oldest protected areas in Mexico.
Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park also protects the areas of the Zoquiapan Hacienda and the annexes of Zoquiapan, Ixtlahuacán, and the Río Frio River. In addition, the park forms the Administrative division of the Los Volcanes Biosphere Reserve.
Popocatépetl is an active stratovolcano in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,426 m (17,802 ft), it is the second-highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl (Pico de Orizaba) at 5,636 m (18,491 ft).
Popocatépetl is linked to Iztaccihuatl, a dormant volcanic mountain to the north, by the high saddle known as the Paso de Cortés.
Iztaccíhuatl is a 5,230-m (17,160-ft) dormant volcanic mountain in Mexico, located on the border between the states of Mexico and Puebla, within Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park. The name "Iztaccíhuatl" is Nahuatl for "White woman," reflecting the four snow-capped peaks which depict a sleeping female's head, chest, knees and feet when seen from the east or west.
Los Volcanes Biosphere Reserve
The Los Volcanes Biosphere Reserve, at 171,774 ha (424,462 acres), surrounds Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park and the Popocatépetl and Ixtaccíhuatl volcanoes. Located within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of south-central Mexico, they mark the biogeographical boundary between the Nearctic and Neotropic ecozones.
The area's altitude varies between 2,589 m (8,494 ft) and 5,452 m (17,887 ft) above sea level. Consequently, there is a very marked ecosystem gradient deriving from the variations in altitude, which provides favorable habitat for a high number of species as well as the presence of endemic species.
Its diverse ecosystems comprise the pine and sacred fir (Abies religiosa) of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests and high-mountain prairies. Its geological formations (hills, volcanic cones and slopes) are of volcanic origin, predominating basalt and andesitic rocks.
Within the reserve, the core zone comes under federal jurisdiction, the buffer zone under each state's land planning, and a combination of ejido (a piece of land farmed communally under a system supported by the state) and small landowners.
The transition zone is the property of the ejidos, communities and small landowners. The transition zone is the only part containing human settlements. These settlements include 30,000+ inhabitants and land given over to farming, stock-raising, forestry, harvesting or other uses.