Mount Roraima is the highest of the Pacaraima Mountains, a chain of tepui plateaus in South America. It serves as the tripoint of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. These tabletop mountains are considered to be the oldest geological formations on Earth.
The Serra da Canastra is a mountain range in southeastern Brazil, located within the Brazilian Highlands. Its topography includes cliffs and dramatic waterfalls. Serra da Canastra National Park protects this important watershed, source of the headwaters of the São Francisco River.
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated mountain range separated from the Andes chain that runs through Colombia. Just 26 miles from the Caribbean coast, it is one of the world's highest coastal ranges, culminating in the snowcapped Cristóbal Colón, the highest peak in Colombia.
The Sierras Pampeanas (also called Central Sierras) is a geographical region and chain of mountains that rise sharply from the surrounding Pampas region of northwestern Argentina. They run parallel to the Andes, cross into seven Argentine provinces, and may be cataloged into sub-regions.
The South American Plate is a major, or primary, tectonic plate. Although it is the smallest major plate, it underlies much of the continent of South America and includes a sizable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed.
The Southern Patagonian Ice Field, located in the Southern Patagonic Andes between Chile and Argentina, is the world's second largest contiguous extrapolar ice field. It is the larger of two remnant parts of the Patagonian Ice Sheet, which covered all of southern Chile during the last glacial period,.
The Tapajós is a major river in Brazil that runs through the Amazon Rainforest and is a major tributary of the Amazon River. Formed by the union of the Juruena and Teles Pires rivers, it is one of the largest clearwater rivers in the Amazon Basin.
The Altiplano, also called Puna, is a region in west-central South America in the area where the Andes are the widest. It is the most extensive area of high plateau on earth outside Tibet. The bulk of the Altiplano lies in Bolivia but its northern parts lie in Peru and its southern parts lie in Chile and Argentina.
Stretching across Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay, the Pantanal is a natural region encompassing the world's largest tropical wetland area. Although not as well known as the Amazon Rainforest to its north, this gigantic seasonal floodplain is also home to a staggering variety of plants and wildlife.
The Strait of Magellan is a sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America and Tierra del Fuego archipelago to the south. Tierra del Fuego, shared by Chile and Argentina, is further separated in the south by the east-west Beagle Channel.
Todos os Santos Bay, or All Saints Bay, is a sheltered bay of the Atlantic Ocean and the principal bay of the Brazilian state of Bahia, to which it gave its name. It sits on the eastern coast of Brazil, surrounding part of Bahia's seaport capital: Salvador.
The Uruguay River is a major river in South America. Its headwaters originate in Brazil's coastal range. The river forms parts of the boundaries of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina before eventually joining the Río de la Plata.