Humberstone and Santa Laura contain over 200 former saltpeter works where workers from Chile, Peru and Bolivia lived in company towns and forged a distinctive communal pampinos culture. That culture is manifest in their rich language, creativity, solidarity, and their pioneering struggle for social justice.
The Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works is located 48 km (30 mi) east of the city of Iquique, in the Atacama Desert, within the Tarapacá Region of northern Chile.
The site contains over 200 former saltpeter works where workers from Chile, Peru and Bolivia lived in company towns and forged a distinctive communal pampinos culture. That culture is manifest in their rich language, creativity, solidarity, and their pioneering struggle for social justice.
In the remote desert Pampa, one of the driest deserts on earth, thousands of people lived and worked from the first half of the 19th century to process the largest deposit of saltpeter in the world, producing the fertilizer sodium nitrate that was to transform agricultural land in North and South America, and Europe, and produce great wealth for Chile.
Humberstone and Santa Laura works are the best preserved and most representative remains of a series of over 200 saltpeter works that once existed, all of which were interconnected by a specially built modern railway system, and constitute an exceptional testimony to technological progress and global exchanges which were the cornerstone of the industrial era.
In this area, workers — drawn from Chile, Peru and Bolivia to this hostile environment — lived in company towns and forged a distinctive communal Pampinos culture, manifest in their own rich language, creativity, and solidarity. Above all, their pioneering struggles for social justice had a profound impact, generally, on social history.
The industrial heritage site was developed from 1872 and until mid 20th century; it is located 45 km (28 mi) from the port of Iquique in the midst of a desert landscape. The property covers a surface area of 573 ha (1,416 acres), with a buffer zone of 12,055 ha (29,788 acres) that encompasses the two main sites which stand at a distance of approximately 1 km (.6 mi) from each other. These complement each other because the industrial area of Santa Laura is better conserved, while Humberstone has better preserved residential and service areas.
The site of Santa Laura conserves the remains of the industrial installations that were used for saltpeter processing such as industrial installations and equipment, including the only leaching shed and a saltpeter grinder that remain intact today, installations for manufacturing iodine, for energy production and buildings such as the administration house and the main square.
The Humberstone site contains the attributes that express the quality of urban settlements, such as the living quarters, public spaces and the regular grid pattern of the Camp, with a main square around which communal buildings are clustered. Other relevant attributes are the remains of the railway line that linked Santa Laura and Humberstone, the gravel heaps, the construction techniques, architectural styles and materials, in particular the costrón and the Pampa concrete, distinctive construction materials together with the calamine and timber that were brought from other latitudes.
The remains of saltpeter works are also present in the buffer zone which is also significant for the conservation of the characteristics of the natural setting of the Pampa which illustrate the relationship between the built environment and the adaptation to the natural setting.
The two saltpeter works are the most representative remaining vestiges of an industry that transformed the lives of a large proportion of the population of Chile, brought great wealth to the country. The output of the industry, nitrate fertilizers, had indirectly a transforming influence on existing agricultural lands in Europe, and on newly cultivated land in other latitudes and indirectly supported the agricultural revolution of the late 19th century in many parts of the world. The remaining buildings are testimony to the social order and technical processes that drove the industry.
The pioneering social agenda of the saltpeter workers’ unions had far-reaching effects on labor laws throughout Chile and further afield. The distinctive culture of the Pampinos that evolved in association with the industry, which expresses the language, the memory of the saltpeter culture and its influence on social process, has resonance among the local population today and is another important attribute of the property.
The place still has a strong symbolic and evocative association for the people from the Pampa, former workers and their families, who use the place for meetings and commemorations such as Saltpeter Week.