Argentina is the second largest country in South America after Brazil and the eighth largest country in the world. With the Andes forming its western border with Chile, the country's varied geography can be grouped into five geographic regions or sectors and seven natural regions or ecosystems.
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Belize is located along the Caribbean coast of northeastern Central America. Known as British Honduras until 1973, its geography consists of heavily forested plains and the Maya Mountains. The Belize Barrier Reef System flanks the coastline while cays and atolls dot the reef.
Stretching in a broad arc across western Bolivia, the Andes define the country's geographic zones. The Western zone features the Andes and the Altiplano. The Central zone features the Semitropical Yungas, the Highland Valleys, and the Gran Chaco. The Eastern Zone features the Tropical Lowlands.
Brazil is South America's largest country, occupying half of its landmass. It is the fifth largest country in the world and is regarded as the most biodiverse country on Earth. The country is conventionally divided into five geographic regions corresponding to its significant landforms and biomes.
Spanning about 2,700 miles north to south, Chile’s natural landscape includes deserts, grasslands, shrublands, and temperate and tropical forests. Geographers generally divide Chile into five regions or zones, each with its characteristic vegetation, fauna, climate, and topography.
Colombia is considered a land of extremes. Located in northwestern South America, its geographic landscape varies from the snow-covered Andes mountains to the tropical beaches of the Caribbean Sea. Due to its variety of ecosystems, Colombia is among the top countries in terms of biodiversity.
Costa Rica is located in southern Central America, bordered by Nicaragua in the north and Panama in the southeast. The Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean form its eastern and southwestern coastlines. Its geography features coastal plains and rainforests separated by rugged mountains and volcanoes.
Ecuador encompasses a wide range of natural landscapes and climates, ranging from the arid Pacific coastal lowlands to the snow-capped peaks of the Andes Mountains and the lush eastern tropical plains of the Amazon Basin. Adding to Ecuador's natural allure are the Galápagos Islands, an archipelago of volcanic origin off the country's western coast in the Pacific Ocean.
El Salvador is located in northern Central America, where it is both the smallest and most densely populated country. Its geographic landscape features two parallel mountain ranges that cross the country with a central plateau between them and a narrow coastal plain hugging the Pacific Ocean.
French Guiana, an overseas territorial collectivity of France, is located on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. Almost the entire territory is covered by rainforest, and its many large rivers and streams constitute the only natural means of penetration into the interior.
Guatemala is the third-largest country in Central America. Situated in a geologically active region, its geography is characterized by three major geographic regions or zones: the Petén lowlands, the Guatemalan highlands, and the Pacific coast flatlands.
Guyana is located in northeastern South America with an Atlantic coastline, much of which is below sea level at high tide. Sometimes classified as part of the Caribbean region, Guyana can be divided into geographic zones, including a coastal plain, a white sand belt, and interior highlands.
Honduras, situated in northern Central America, is mostly mountainous. It shares borders with Nicaragua to the southeast, El Salvador and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Guatemala to the west, and the Caribbean Sea to the north. This strategic positioning places Honduras at the crossroads of diverse geographical and cultural influences. Most of the population resides in the central highlands, an economically important agricultural area.
Mexico is located in the southern portion of North America and is the third largest country in Latin America. A biodiverse country, it encompasses arid deserts and scrublands, tropical rainforests, temperate forests and grasslands, mangrove swamps, alpine ecosystems, and coral reefs.
Nicaragua is situated in Central America between Honduras in the north and Costa Rica in the south. Its geography divides the country into three major zones: the Pacific lowlands, the north-central highlands, and the Caribbean lowlands or Mosquito Coast.
Panama is the southernmost country of Central America, located on the elongated S-shaped Isthmus of Panama, the narrow land bridge that connects North and South America. Its landscape comprises three major physical regions: mountains, coastal lowlands, and archipelagos. Strategically positioned at the crossroads of North and South America, Panama stands out as a haven of remarkable biodiversity.
Paraguay is a land-locked country located in the south-central region of South America. The Paraguay River divides the country into two distinct eastern and western geographic regions: Paraneña, where 95% of the population resides, and Chaco Boreal.
Located on the western coast of South America, Peru is one of the world's most biologically diverse countries, boasting an impressive array of ecosystems and climates. Its biodiversity can be organized into four main biomes. Geographically, Peru is traditionally described in terms of three broad longitudinal regions: the Costa, the Sierra, and the Amazonia.
Suriname is located on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America and is its smallest sovereign state. The geography of Suriname consists of rainforests, savanna, and coastal swamps. Its forest cover is approximately 90%, the highest of any nation worldwide.
The Caribbean, or West Indies, is a region of the Americas that consists of several groups of islands within or bordering the Caribbean Sea, plus The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean. The region includes over 700 islands, islets, reefs, and cays.
Uruguay is located in the Southern Cone of South America on the southeastern Atlantic coast. Much of the country is a gently rolling plain that represents a transition from the almost featureless Argentine pampas in the west to the hilly uplands of southern Brazil in the east.
Venezuela is located on the northern coast of South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean in the north and northeast. The country has four distinct geographical regions: the Venezuelan Highlands, the Maracaibo Lowlands, the Orinoco Plains, and the Guiana Highlands.