Suriname: Natural Landscape
Suriname is located on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America and is its smallest sovereign state. The geography of Suriname consists of rainforests, savanna, and coastal swamps. Its forest cover is approximately 90%, the highest of any nation worldwide.
The Natural Landscape of Suriname
Suriname is located on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America, bordered by Guyana to the west, French Guiana to the east, and Brazil to the south. Its coastline with the Atlantic Ocean in the north extends approximately 386 km (239 mi).
Suriname is South America's smallest sovereign state, just under 165,000 sq km (64,000 sq mi). Tropical rainforests predominantly cover the country.
Formerly "Dutch Guiana," Suriname is a part of the region known as "The Guianas," which includes Guyana and French Guiana.
Suriname is sometimes considered part of the "Caribbean South America" subregion, along with the other Caribbean Sea boundary nations and territories of South America: Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and French Guiana, because the United Nations granted them an area of the sea.
On the other hand, because the country's official language is Dutch, Suriname is sometimes not considered a genuinely Latin American country.
The capital city of Paramaribo is the main urban area. The city accounts for nearly half the country's population and moss urban residents. Most municipalities are located within the capital's metropolitan area or along the densely populated coastline.
According to the Global Biodiversity Index, Suriname ranks 42nd in the world in terms of biodiversity, providing habitat for approximately 696 bird species, 114 amphibian species, 1,046 fish species, 207 mammal species, 156 reptile species, and 5,100 vascular plant species.
At approximately 15 million ha (37 million acres), Suriname's forest cover is about 90%, the highest of any nation worldwide.
Suriname has a tropical climate, and temperatures do not vary much throughout the year. However, there are two wet seasons: from December to early February and from late April to mid-August.
Map depicting the countries on the continent of South America
Natural Geography of Suriname
The natural landscape of Suriname consists of rainforests, savanna, coastal swamps, and the two main mountain ranges: the Bakhuis and Van Asch Van Wijck Mountains.
The country is situated on the Guiana Shield, one of the three cratons of the South American Plate. It can be divided into two main geographic regions:
the northern lowland coastal plain
the southern tropical rainforest and savanna along the border with Brazil
Northern Coastal Plain
The coastal plain is flat and sometimes as much as 1.5 m (5 ft) below sea level, necessitating a system of sea defenses. In addition, the soils of the coastal plain are relatively fertile.
The narrow coastal zone, approximately 386 km (239 mi) in width, consists of sandbanks and mudbanks. This sediment was deposited by the southern equatorial currents from the area surrounding the mouth of the Amazon River, located on the Brazilian coast to the south.
Further inland and south of the mudbanks, the "New Coastal Plain" begins, which was also formed from sand and clay from the mouth of the Amazon. This region consists of clay swampland in which peat has developed and is traversed by sandy ridges that run parallel to the coast.
South of the New Coastal Plain is the "Old Coastal Plain," which consists primarily of fine clays and sands. This Old Coastal Plain contains a variety of topographies, including old ridges, clay flats, and swamps.
Paramaribo: the capital city and surrounding areas are home to almost half the country's population.
West Coast: known for its birdlife, Bigi Pan Nature Reserve, and a few towns.
East Coast: home to former colonial plantations and sea turtle nesting beaches.
Southern Rainforest and Savanna
South of the Old Coastal Plain is a forest belt 48 - 72 km (30 - 45 mi) wide, interspersed with grassy savannas.
In the upper Coppename River watershed, the Central Suriname Nature Reserve is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, cited for its unspoiled rainforest biodiversity.
Near the Brazilian border lies the Sipaliwini Plain, another savanna area in the southwest. Even farther to the south, bordering Brazil, is an area consisting mainly of a central mountain range along with its branches and scattered hilly regions. A vast tropical rainforest covers these highlands.
Map illustrating the regions of Suriname
Juliana Top, located in the Wilhelmina Mountains, is the highest mountain in the country at 1,280 m (4,199 ft) asl. The main mountain ranges in Suriname include:
Van Asch Van Wijck Mountains
De Hann and Wilhelmina Mountains
Map depicting the topography of Suriname
Bodies of Water
Suriname's principal rivers flow northward into the Atlantic Ocean. They include:
Courantyne River: forms part of the border with Guyana in the west
Lawa River / Maroni (Marowijne) River: forms part of the border with French Guiana in the east
Tapanahoni (Tapanahony) River
Bigi Pan Lagoon
CIA Map of Suriname
Suriname is situated in the Neotropical realm. Ecoregions are classified by biome type - the major global plant communities determined by rainfall and climate. In addition, the country contains six terrestrial ecoregions.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests:
Paramaribo swamp forests
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands:
Suriname is divided into ten administrative districts: the two urban districts of Paramaribo (the capital) and Wanica, six rural districts in the coastal area, and two in the interior.
Map of administrative divisions of Suriname
Suriname is involved in territorial disputes with both Guyana and French Guiana. Its maritime boundary with Guyana has long been disputed as well.
Suriname claims about 15,000 sq km (5,800 sq mi) between two tributaries of the Courantyne River in southern Guyana. It also claims approximately 13,000 sq km (5,000 sq mi) between the Litani and Maroni rivers in the southwest corner of French Guiana.
Map of Suriname illustrating disputed border territories