Paraguay: Natural Landscape

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Paraguay: Natural Landscape

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Paraguay's natural landscape is characterized by two distinct regions: the eastern region, which is hilly and forested, and the western region, a flat, marshy plain known as the Chaco. The country is also home to various rivers and lakes, including the Paraná River, one of the largest in South America.

The Natural Landscape of Paraguay

Paraguay, situated in the heart of South America, occupies a prominent position in the continent's south-central region. Encompassing an expansive area of 406,752 square kilometers (157,050 square miles), Paraguay shares its borders with Bolivia to the north and northwest, Argentina to the south and southwest, and Brazil to the east and northeast.

As a landlocked nation, Paraguay predominantly features vast plains and swamplands across its topography. Despite lacking direct coastal access, the country has strategically positioned ports along the Paraguay and Paraná Rivers, providing crucial gateways to the Atlantic Ocean. This geographic advantage facilitates international trade and connectivity, allowing the country to overcome its landlocked status.

The Paraguay River, coursing through the nation, serves as a natural demarcation, creating two distinct geographic regions: the Paraneña in the east and the Chaco Boreal in the west. The Paraneña region is particularly significant as it hosts approximately 95% of the country's population. Characterized by fertile plains and more hospitable conditions, this area has become the country's economic and cultural hub. On the other hand, the Chaco Boreal, stretching to the west of the Paraguay River, is a vast expanse of semi-arid lowlands, offering a unique ecological landscape.

Paraguay's geographical diversity not only shapes its demographic distribution but also influences its economic activities and cultural dynamics. The juxtaposition of the Paraneña and Chaco Boreal regions highlights the country's rich variety of landscapes, fostering a blend of traditions and lifestyles. This geographical complexity and the nation's river-based connectivity underscores Paraguay's resilience and adaptability on the South American continent.


Nestled in the heart of South America, Paraguay stands out for its exceptional biodiversity, firmly establishing itself as a crucial player in the global ecological landscape. A vital component of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest, recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot, the country offers a rich blend of ecosystems that belie its relatively modest size compared to its neighboring countries.

The nation showcases an impressive variety of flora and fauna, underscoring the resilience of its ecosystems. Paraguay's commitment to preserving its natural heritage is intrinsic to its identity and contributes significantly to the global conservation narrative.

According to the Global Biodiversity Index, Paraguay holds the 53rd position worldwide, a testament to the remarkable diversity within its borders. The country is home to a staggering 690 bird species, 80 amphibian species, 266 fish species, 181 mammal species, 189 reptile species, and an impressive 7,851 vascular plant species. This wealth of biodiversity is a source of pride for the country, highlighting the intricate web of life that flourishes within its landscapes.


Recognizing the imperative to safeguard its diverse ecosystems, Paraguay has proactively implemented robust conservation measures. Establishing protected areas, national parks, and reserves is a testament to the nation's commitment to preserving its natural treasures. Among these, the Defensores del Chaco National Park, Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve, and Ñeembucú Wetland Biosphere Reserve are prominent examples, each playing a crucial role in maintaining the delicate balance of the country's ecosystems.

Despite these commendable efforts, Paraguay grapples with challenges threatening its biodiversity, including deforestation, habitat degradation, and the illegal wildlife trade. However, the nation remains steadfast in its dedication to addressing these issues head-on. The country's conservation programs strive to mitigate existing threats and contribute to broader global biodiversity conservation initiatives.

The ongoing commitment to balancing economic development with environmental sustainability reflects Paraguay's nuanced approach to conservation; by addressing challenges and fostering a harmonious coexistence between human activities and the natural world, Paraguay endeavors to ensure that its extraordinary biodiversity continues to thrive for future generations.


Paraguay exhibits a subtropical climate characterized by distinct seasonal variations, featuring hot and humid summers and relatively mild winters. The nation is geographically divided into two primary climate regions: the Eastern Region and the Western Region, commonly referred to as the Chaco.

The Eastern Region experiences a more humid climate, with average temperatures spanning from 20 to 24 degrees Celsius (68 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit). The seasonal rhythm includes a rainy period extending from October to March, with the pinnacle of precipitation occurring in December and January. This region's climate creates a lush environment, fostering diverse ecosystems and supporting vibrant vegetation.

Conversely, the Western Region, or the Chaco, showcases a more arid climate, with average temperatures ranging from 25 to 29 degrees Celsius (77 to 84 degrees Fahrenheit). The rainy season in this area is notably briefer, spanning from November to February, and the overall rainfall is comparatively lower. This climate contributes to a distinctive landscape marked by semi-arid plains and lowlands, adding to the geographic diversity of Paraguay.

On an annual basis, Paraguay receives an average of 1,500 mm (59 in) of precipitation. However, the distribution of rainfall exhibits significant regional disparities. The Eastern Region receives more precipitation with its humid climate than the Western Region. Additionally, there is a discernible gradient from north to south, with the northern part of the country experiencing more abundant rainfall than its southern counterpart.

Map depicting the countries on the continent of South America

Map depicting the countries on the continent of South America

Natural Geography of Paraguay

Geographic Regions

The Paraguay River divides the country into two distinct eastern and western geographic regions:

  1. Eastern Region (Región Oriental): also known as the Paraneña, composed chiefly of grassy plains and wooded hills

  2. Western Region (Región Occidental): also known as the Chaco Boreal, composed mainly of low, marshy plains

Eastern Region (Región Oriental)

The Eastern Region, also known as the Paraneña, extends from the Paraguay River eastward to the Paraná River, forming the country's border with Brazil and Argentina. Approximately 95% of the country's population resides in the Paraneña region, covering roughly 160,000 sq km (61,700 sq mi). An extension of the Brazilian Plateau, the region is dominated by a fertile, cultivated landscape that features rolling hills, low mountains, and subtropical forests.

The Eastern region can be divided into five physiographic subregions:

  1. Paraná Plateau: occupies one-third of the area and extends its entire length from north to south, approximately 145 km (90 mi) westward from the Brazilian and Argentine borders

  2. Northern Upland: consists of a rolling plateau about 180 m (590 ft) above sea level

  3. Central Hill Belt: encompasses the area in the vicinity of Asunción and consists of uneven rolling terrain with numerous small isolated peaks and a few lakes

  4. Central Lowland: an area of low elevation and relief, sloping gently upward from the Paraguay River toward the Paraná Plateau

  5. Ñeembucú Plain: an alluvial plain consisting of a swampy lowland bisected by the Tebicuary River, a major tributary of the Paraguay River

Western Region (Región Occidental)

The Western Region is also known as the Chaco or Chaco Boreal, part of the Gran Chaco. The Chaco's hot scrublands and low plains cover about 60% of Paraguay's land area. It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in South America. Separated from the Eastern region by the Paraguay River, the Chaco region is a vast plain with elevations reaching no higher than 300 m (980 ft) and averaging 125 m (400 ft).

The Paraguayan Chaco is subdivided into two parts:

  1. Upper Chaco or Dry Chaco makes up the western three-quarters of the Chaco region, bordering Bolivia

  2. Lower Chaco or Humid Chaco borders the Paraguay River in the east

Map depicting the geographic regions of Paraguay

Map depicting the geographic areas of Paraguay

Bodies of Water

Paraguay is a landlocked country in South America. While it does not have direct access to the sea, it is home to several significant water bodies, including rivers, lakes, lagoons, dams, and reservoirs. These play a critical role in the country's water resources, economy, and natural environment.

See more: Water Bodies of Paraguay

Administrative Divisions

Paraguay is divided into two regions, seventeen departments, and one capital district for administrative purposes. Each department is subdivided into districts and has a capital city.

See more: Cultural Landscape of Paraguay

Shaded relief map of Paraguay

Shaded relief map of Paraguay

Natural Regions

Ecological Regions

The following is a list of terrestrial ecoregions in Paraguay, as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). Paraguay is in the Neotropical realm. Ecoregions are classified by biome type - the major global plant communities determined by rainfall and climate.

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

  • Dry Chaco: comprised of several habitats, although savanna and thorn forests predominate

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

  • Humid Chaco: a mosaic of ecosystems including woodland and savanna where various species of trees, shrubs, and coarse grass develop

  • Cerrado: the largest savanna region in South America

Flooded grasslands and savannas

Map depicting the ecoregions of Paraguay

Map depicting the ecoregions of Paraguay