Argentina is the second largest country in South America after Brazil and the eighth largest country in the world. With the Andes forming its western border with Chile, the country's varied geography can be grouped into four geographic regions or sectors and seven natural regions or ecosystems.
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Ecoregions of Argentina
The Argentine Espinal ecoregion is a thorny deciduous shrubland forest located in central Argentina, extending from central Santa Fe through the province of Córdoba to the north of San Luis. It has been extensively modified by large-scale cattle ranching.
The Araucaria moist forests ecoregion spans the mountainous areas of Southern Atlantic Brazil and extends into northeastern Argentina. It is a coniferous forest ecoregion of the Atlantic Forest biome.
The Central Andean dry puna ecoregion is a dry, high-elevation grassland of the high southern Andes, extending through western Bolivia, northern Chile, and Argentina. Dry puna is distinguished from other types of puna by its annual rainfall or lack thereof.
The Central Andean puna ecoregion is a high-elevation montane grassland and shrubland of South America and is part of the Puna grassland region. It is located in the high southern Andes, extending from southern Peru through Bolivia into northern Argentina.
The Dry Chaco ecoregion, or Gran Chaco, is a sparsely populated, hot, semi-arid lowland alluvial plain of the Río de la Plata basin. It is divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina, and a portion of Brazil. The Chaco contains South America's second-largest forest after the Amazon.
The Humid Chaco ecoregion occupies the lowlands of the Paraná River, covering portions of northeastern Argentina, the center of Paraguay, and small areas in southwestern Brazil. The natural vegetation is a mosaic of grasslands, palm savanna, and forest.
The humid pampas occupy the plains in the east of Argentina. They are one of the highest human-populated areas in Argentina, taking up most of the province of Buenos Aires. Horizontal plains and very soft undulations with low peaks characterize the relief of this area.
The Magellanic subpolar forests are a terrestrial ecoregion of southernmost South America, covering parts of southern Chile and Argentina. Lying west of the Andes Mountains, this temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion is the world's southernmost forest.
The Monte Desert is a region in South America lying entirely within Argentina. The Argentine Monte, or Low Monte, is an ecoregion of Argentina's dry thorn scrub and grasslands. It is one of the driest regions in the country. Human settlements are mainly near water supplies such as rivers or oases.
The Patagonian Desert, also known as the Magellanic Steppe, is a semiarid scrub plateau covering nearly all of the southern portion of mainland Argentina. It is the largest desert in Argentina and is bounded by the Patagonian Andes and the country of Chile to the west.