Located on the western coast of South America, Peru is one of the world's most biologically diverse countries. Its biodiversity can be organized into four main biomes. Geographically, Peru is traditionally described in terms of three broad longitudinal regions: the Costa, the Sierra, and the Amazonia.
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Ecoregions of Peru
The Central Andean puna ecoregion is a high-elevation montane grassland and shrubland of South America and is part of the Puna grassland region. It is located in the high southern Andes, extending from southern Peru through Bolivia into northern Argentina.
The Central Andean wet puna ecoregion is a high elevation, moist, montane grassland in the high southern Andes in Peru and eastern Bolivia. It comprises bunchgrass communities, wetlands, small shrubs and trees, and herbaceous plants.
The Peruvian yungas are sub-tropical montane deciduous and evergreen forests that flank the Peruvian Andes' eastern slopes and central valleys. This region maintains one of the richest montane forest ecosystems in the Neotropics.
The Southwest Amazon moist forests are in the upper Amazon Basin, encompassing parts of Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. The vast ecoregion contains some of the richest and largest tracts of intact tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Its inaccessibility has kept most of the habitat intact.
Várzeas are extensive lowland floodplain areas bordering the Amazon River and its tributaries. As a result, Várzea forests are subject to seasonal flooding and may also contain more open, seasonally flooded habitats such as grasslands, including floating meadows.