Monte Roraima National Park (Brazil)

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Monte Roraima National Park (Brazil)

Tue, 01/21/2020 - 14:34
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Monte Roraima National Park is located in northern Brazil and contains plateau and montane ecosystems. It includes the Brazilian section of Mount Roraima and part of the Pacaraima Mountains, which separate Brazil from Venezuela and Guyana.

Monte Roraima National Park

Monte Roraima National Park is located in northern Brazil within Roraima. It includes the Brazilian section of Mount Roraima and part of the Pacaraima (or Pakaraima) Mountains, separating Brazil from Venezuela and Guyana. It covers an area of 116,747 ha (288,490 acres).

The park is named after Mount Roraima, the highest of the Tepui mountains at almost 3,000 m (9,800 ft) and one of the highest in the Pacaraima chain. The mountain has a flat top with a monument, the Marco da Triplice Fronteira (Three Borders Landmark), where the borders of Venezuela, Guyana, and Brazil meet.

The Tepui mountains typically have large, flat table tops fringed by steep and partially denuded cliffs, surrounded by broad pediments cut with ravines that merge into the lower dissected reliefs of the Pacaraima range. The Serra do Sol mountain range to the southeast has altitudes up to 2,400 m (7,900 ft).

Monte Roraima National Park contains the sources of the most northern rivers that flow south into the Branco River basin. These include:

  • the Cotingo River, with its headwaters at the foot of Mount Roraima

  • the Panari River in the extreme north, flowing to the south of the Caburaí mountains

  • the Maú or Ireng River, which forms the border between Brazil and Guyana

  • the Uailan River near the Uailan mountains

Both the Cotingo and Maú rivers have continuous stretches of rapids and waterfalls, including the dramatic Garã Garã waterfall on the Maú.

Monte Roraima National Park is in the Amazon biome. Temperatures range from 2 - 18 °C (36 - 64 °F) with an average of 10 °C (50 °F). The average annual rainfall is 1,900 mm (75 in).

The region has diverse landscapes that should help conserve biodiversity, although it lacks space. It contains a 9,900 ha (24,000 acres) area of savanna, 8.7% of the total area. This area includes forest, woodland, park, and grassland.

The forest includes plateau and montane ecosystems. The plateau ecosystem contains small patches of dense forest with emergent trees. In contrast, the montane ecosystem exhibits dense forests with a closed canopy on the slopes and an open canopy on the summits and flatter areas.

Various endemic species are adapted to the harsh mountain climate where temperatures may range from 4 - 25 °C (39 - 77 °F) within 24 hours.