Petenes Mangrove Ecoregion (Mexico)
The Petenes mangrove ecoregion is located in Mexico at the border between the states of Yucatán and Campeche, in the western portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. The low annual rainfall of this region, paired with the severe dryness of the whole area, has eliminated rivers from the landscape.
The Petenes mangrove ecoregion is located in Mexico at the border between the states of Yucatán and Campeche, in the western portion of the Yucatán Peninsula.
This coastal ecoregion lies in the part of the Yucatán Peninsula that receives the lowest annual rainfall, averaging 450 mm (18 in). The low annual rainfall of this region, paired with the severe dryness of the whole area, has eliminated rivers from the landscape. Therefore, the freshwater necessary for productive mangrove ecosystems comes from springs.
The area of the Petenes mangrove ecoregion is continuously flooded, though rivers are absent. Instead, springs form in the bottom of the mangroves, providing fresh water and enormous quantities of nutrients, helping to regulate salinity and raise nutrient concentrations.
Water pollution has deteriorated many of the mangroves in the Yucatán Peninsula. However, this is one of the largest areas where mangroves are in exemplary conservation.
The Celestún Lagoon is the most critical hydrologic feature within this ecoregion; it lies on a karstic platform and can thus achieve a high salt content.
The soils, derived from sedimentary rocks, are shallow in some areas but deep in others. As a result, different types of mangroves can occur, depending on the levels of salinity and the number of nutrients present.
Flora and Fauna
The pygmy mangrove habitat is composed of short trees (< 5 m or 16.4 ft), while the fringe mangrove habitat is richer and composed of taller trees (15 - 20 m or 50 - 65 ft).
Both types of mangroves house the same tree species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and a few individuals of Avicennia germinans, which are scarce because they are relatively intolerant of high salinity and persistent floods. Cladium jamaicensis, Typha dominguensis, Salicornia bigelovi, and Batis maritima can also be associated with the dominant species.
A unique mangrove association, called Peten mangrove, is formed near the Celestún Lagoon. It comprises the dominant species inhabiting mangroves, plus plants forming irregular hummocks of moist forests within the mangroves.
Dominant species in the Petenes mangroves (besides mangrove trees) are Manilkara zapota, Bursera simaruba, Malvaviscus arboreus and Ficus tecolutlensis.
The Petenes mangroves constitute one of the two refuges for the highly endangered American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber). In addition, many fish species use the mangroves as oviposition areas and breeding grounds, contributing to this region's high diversity of ichthyofauna.
Some fish species, of which there are over 100, use mangrove tree roots as natural refuges during the day, feeding on them at night. Considering that many other species of vertebrates also depend on fish for food, this close relationship between the ichthyofauna and the mangroves is crucial to maintaining diversity in these communities.
The Petenes mangroves also constitute a natural refuge for crocodiles. In addition, they are the only dry refuge within the wetlands for deer, small monkeys, and rodents that use the mangroves as foraging grounds.
The great diversity of aquatic plants leads some to consider this area the most diverse reservoir of aquatic plants in Mesoamerica. In addition, there are 304 species of birds, 33 species of mammals, and five species of reptiles in the Petenes mangroves.
Many birds are endemic or restricted-range species, adding to Mexico's wetlands' ecological and biological value.
At least five important bird areas have been identified within this ecoregion; Los Petenes, Ría Celestún, Ichka' Ansijo, Reserva Estatal de Dzilám, and portions of Ría Lagartos. In addition, two birds with limited ranges include this ecoregion; the near-endemic Mexican sheartail (Doricha eliza) and the endemic Yucatan Wren (Campylorhynchus yucatanicus).
Other birds that utilize this ecoregion are yellow-crowned night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea), neotropic cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), Yucatan parrot (Amazona xantholora), Yucatán bobwhite (Colinus nigrogularis), and Zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita).
Many species use the mangroves of this ecoregion as their winter destinations, including the black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens), Nashville warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla), cliff swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota), ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris), and ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres).
In general, many mammals utilize mangrove areas, especially in dry regions such as this part of the Yucatan Peninsula, where this mangrove ecoregion is surrounded by dry forest.
Central American mammals found in this ecoregion include the Central American spider monkey (Cryptotis nigrescens), Mexican mouse opossum (Marmosa mexicana), blackish small-eared shrew (Cryptotis nigrescens) and Yucatan deer mouse (Peromyscus yucatanicus).
The Petenes mangroves form a coastal corridor of wetlands in excellent preservation. This system forms a unique biogeographical area in Mexico of great ecological value for its large faunistic and floristic diversity, including the unique Peten mangrove.
The Ría Celestún Biosphere Reserve protects 25% of the territory occupied by the Petenes wetlands. In addition, the North American Wetlands Conservation Council has designated this region as one of the priority wetlands of North America.
The Mexican government has also submitted "Los Petenes-Ría Celestún" to UNESCO for placement on the World Heritage Tentative List of sites.
Map depicting the location of the Petenes mangroves (in purple)