Mexico is located in the southern portion of North America and is the third largest country in Latin America. A biodiverse country, it encompasses arid deserts and scrublands, tropical rainforests, temperate forests and grasslands, mangrove swamps, alpine ecosystems, and coral reefs.
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Ecoregions of Mexico
The Baja California Desert ecoregion is located within the Mexican states of Baja California Sur and Baja California Norte, on the western side of the Peninsular Ranges, in the northern and central Baja California Peninsula.
The Central American dry forests ecoregion spans several countries in Central America, including parts of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. It represents a transitional zone between the more humid tropical rainforests and the arid desert regions.
The Central American Montane Forests ecoregion comprises widely scattered small forest patches on the slopes of the highest mountains in Central America, extending from southern Mexico towards the southeast through Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
The Central American pine-oak forests ecoregion supports a rich assortment of conifer species. It spans the mid-elevations of the Mexican state of Chiapas, southern Guatemala, most of Honduras and El Salvador, and small areas of west-central Nicaragua.
The Chihuahuan Desert stretches deep into the Central Mexican Plateau from the southwestern United States. Bounded by the Sierra Madre range, this sheltered desert ecoregion is unique, encompassing one of Earth's most biologically diverse arid regions.
The Marismas Nacionales Lagoon System is a significant coastal wetland located on the Pacific coast of northwest Mexico and a substantial and crucial mangrove ecosystem. The Marismas Nacionales–San Blas mangrove ecoregion is renowned for its rich biodiversity and ecological significance.
The Pantanos de Centla is a tropical moist forest ecoregion in southern Mexico. The area serves as a biological corridor and includes a variety of ecosystem types, from flooded moist forests to temperate and cloud forests.
The Petenes mangrove ecoregion is located in Mexico at the border between the states of Yucatán and Campeche, in the western portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. The low annual rainfall of this region, paired with the severe dryness of the whole area, has eliminated rivers from the landscape.
The Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests ecoregion is located on the northern part of the Baja Peninsula in northwestern Mexico. The ecoregion covers the higher elevations of these two mountain ranges that are part of the Peninsular Ranges System.
The Sonoran Desert, also called Desierto de Altar, is an arid region covering 120,000 sq mi. This North American desert ecoregion covers large parts of northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California and Baja California Sur, as well as parts of the southwestern United States.