Brazil is considered a megadiverse country, possessing six terrestrial biomes or natural regions. Brazil's 26 states and the Federal District are conventionally divided into five geographic regions that correspond generally to the country's major landforms and biomes.
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Ecoregions of Brazil
The Araucaria moist forests ecoregion spans the mountainous areas of southern Atlantic Brazil and extends into northeastern Argentina. It is a coniferous forest ecoregion of the Atlantic Forest biome.
The Caatinga of Brazil is the largest dry forest region in South America and also one of the richest dry forests in the world, providing habitat for an array of flora and fauna species. It is home to 26 million people and over 2000 species of plants and animals.
Situated primarily in southeastern Venezuela, the Guianan Highlands moist forest ecoregion is distinct from other ecoregions in Amazonia due to its montane physiography. It hosts vast expanses of tall primary rainforests and open, semi-treeless savannas interrupted by gallery forests.
Located on the northeast coast of South America, the Guianan moist forests are one of the largest continuous tracts of relatively pristine lowland tropical rain forest in the world. It holds a wide variety of regional biodiversity with high levels of species endemism and richness.
The Guianan savanna is an ecoregion in the south of Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname and the north of Brazil. The savanna covers an area of rolling upland plains on the Guiana Shield between the Amazon and Orinoco basins.
The Juruá-Purus Moist Forests ecoregion is located in northwestern Brazil to the south of the Solimões or upper Amazon River. It is part of the Amazon Biome and is mostly covered with evergreen tropical rainforests with a dense high canopy.
Stretching across portions of Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay, the Pantanal is a natural region encompassing the world's largest tropical wetland area. This gigantic seasonal floodplain ecoregion is also home to a staggering variety of plants and wildlife.
The Serra do Mar coastal forests ecoregion covers a 1000-km long by 100-km wide strip along the Atlantic coast of southeastern Brazil. The ecoregion represents the largest continuous block of montane Atlantic forest and a remarkable center of endemism in South America.
The Southwest Amazon moist forests cover an extensive area of the Upper Amazon Basin. The inaccessibility of this region has kept most of the habitat intact. Also, there are a number of protected areas, which preserve this extremely biologically rich ecoregion.
The Tepui ecoregion, found in the Guiana Highlands of northern South America, is host to an archipelago of isolated sandstone plateaus and summits, atop nearly vertical escarpments. These dramatic features perforate an extensive matrix of highland savannas and rain forests.