The Moconá (Yucumã) Falls is a dramatic linear waterfall on the border between the province of Misiones, Argentina and the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The areas on either side of the falls are protected by the Moconá Provincial Park in Argentina and the Turvo State Park in Brazil.
Moconá / Yucumã Falls
The Moconá Falls in Argentina (often called Yucumã Falls in Brazil) is a dramatic linear waterfall along the Uruguay River on the border between the province of Misiones, Argentina and the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Here, the Uruguay River forms a natural border between the two countries.
The height of the waterfall varies from 5 - 7 m (16 - 23 ft), depending on the volume of the river. The width of the waterfall also varies from 1,800 - 3,000 m (5,900 - 9,800 ft). It is the second widest in the world after the Iguazú Falls at 2,682 m (8,799 ft).
The Moconá Falls do not follow the normal downward and forward trajectory of most waterfalls. Instead, the falls run longitudinally along the length of the river with water spilling off the side into a gorge.
The submerged canyon gorge or trench runs along the riverbed. It is deep and narrow and was formed during the last glacial period at a time when the climate was drier and the river was not as wide. The canyon gorge is no longer visible along most of the river. Instead, it is only visible in two places, one of which is at the Moconá Falls.
During the dry season (November to April), the trench is visible at the falls where the river flows along its edge and spills laterally into it. At other times, the flood waters submerge the falls and it appears mainly as rapids.
Moconá Provincial Park (Argentina)
Moconá Provincial Park is a protected natural area located in the province of Misiones, Argentina, on the border with Brazil. It has an area of 999 ha (2,468 acres).
The park was established in 1988 to preserve the Moconá waterfalls and conserve the representative Misiones forest ecosystem, the Selva Parananese (Paraná Jungle) or Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest.
In 1993, Moconá Falls was declared a National Natural Monument. Moconá Provincial Park is located within the Yabotí Biosphere Reserve.
Turvo State Park (Brazil)
Turvo State Park is a protected natural area in the northwest part of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has an area of 17,491 ha (43,222 acres). One of the first protected areas in the state, it was formed in 1947 as a state forest reserve.
The park is located on the basaltic lava plateau of the Paraná River Basin. Altitudes range from 100 to 400 m (330 to 1,310 ft) above sea level.
Turvo State Park is best known for the dramatic Yucumã Falls on the Uruguay River, the second-widest in the world by some measures. It also protects the last large area of well-preserved Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest in the state with more than 700 plant species as well as several rare or endangered species.
Almost 290 species of birds and more than 30 species of medium and large mammals can be found in the park. Many of the species are rare and some are regionally or globally threatened.