The Chocó-Darién moist forests ecoregion extends along most of Colombia's Pacific coast, bounded to the east by the Andes, and along the Caribbean coast, north into Panama. The region has exceptionally high rainfall, and the forests hold incredible biodiversity.
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The Costa Rican páramo is a moist montane grassland and shrubland ecoregion found in the higher elevations of Costa Rica and western Panama within the Cordillera de Talamanca. It is one of Central America's most intact habitats, with high biological richness.
The Greater Antilles mangrove ecoregion comprises various coastal areas in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica. These mangroves support relatively high levels of endemic flora and fauna and are often part of complex assemblages of habitats.
The Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub ecoregion, along the Caribbean Sea in northern Venezuela and Colombia, is a unique xerophytic area in the neotropics. Proposed as a bird center of endemism, this arid habitat is dominated by thorn scrub and succulents.
Situated primarily in southeastern Venezuela, the Guianan Highlands moist forests ecoregion is distinct from other ecoregions in Amazonia due to its montane physiography. It hosts vast expanses of tall primary rainforests and open, semi-treeless savannas interrupted by gallery forests.
Located on the northeast coast of South America, the Guianan moist forests are one of the world's most extensive continuous tracts of relatively pristine lowland tropical rainforest. As a result, it holds a wide variety of regional biodiversity with high species endemism and richness levels.
The Guianan savanna is an ecoregion of the Amazon biome in the south of Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname, and the north of Brazil. The savanna covers an area of rolling upland plains on the Guiana Shield between the Amazon and Orinoco basins.
The Hispaniolan dry forests are located throughout the southern and western two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. The natural vegetation consists primarily of species belonging to the cactus family and shrubs and trees adapted to the limited water availability.
The Hispaniolan moist forests ecoregion is a tropical broadleaf forest on the island of Hispaniola. These wet forests maintain distinct flora and fauna, with many unique species. Initially, these forests covered about 60% of the original vegetation on the island.
The Hispaniolan pine forests are found on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles. This ecoregion is today mainly in mountainous areas of the Cordillera Central and the Sierra de Bahoruco, as well as other small patches in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.