The Andes Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western coast of South America. The Andean Region extends north-south from Caribbean Venezuela through the Atacama Desert to cold, windy, wet Cape Horn.
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The Serra do Espinhaço mountain range represents Brazil's largest and most continuous Precambrian orogenic belt. The Espinhaço Range Biosphere Reserve includes 16 protected areas: National Parks, State Parks, State Ecological Stations, and Municipal Natural Parks.
The Serra do Mar is a coastal system of mountain ranges and escarpments in southeastern Brazil. Serra do Mar State Park and the Serra do Mar Ecological Corridor encompass and protect one of the largest remaining areas of continuous Atlantic Forest.
Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range in Rio de Janeiro that is part of the larger Serra do Mar mountain range system that overlooks Guanabara Bay in southeastern Brazil. Serra dos Órgãos National Park protects the range and its water resources.
The Serra Geral is the principal mountain relief of interior southern Brazil. It is located at the south and eastern reaches of the Paraná Plateau and constitutes the southern portion of the Serra do Mar system. The range is home to Serra Geral National Park, which hosts the Fortaleza Canyon.
The Sierra del Rosario is located in the eastern part of Cuba's Guaniguanico mountain range, the site of the first significant coffee plantation in the New World. The Biosphere Reserve protects tropical forests with evergreen and semi-deciduous environments.
The Sierra Nevada de Güicán, El Cocuy and Chita are located within the Cordillera Oriental range of the Colombian Andes. El Cocuy National Natural Park protects its extraordinary biodiversity and endemism and its function as a corridor for migratory species.
Sierras Pampeanas, or Central Sierras, is a geographical region and chain of mountains that rise sharply from the surrounding Pampas region of northwestern Argentina. They run parallel to the Andes, cross into seven Argentine provinces, and may be cataloged into sub-regions.
The Tropical Andes region includes the northernmost Andes ranges, from Venezuela south into Bolivia. The Tropical Andes Biodiversity Hotspot is the most biologically diverse of all recognized hotspots and contains about one-sixth of all plant life on Earth.
The Venezuelan Andes form the northernmost extension of the Andes Mountains system. Cordillera de Mérida, commonly considered the proper Venezuelan Andes, along with the Serranía del Perijá, make up the Andean natural region of Venezuela.
The Venezuelan Coastal Range, also known as Cordillera de la Costa, is a mountain range that runs parallel to the northern coast of Venezuela. Sometimes referred to as the Maritime Andes, the range is a northeastern extension of the more extensive system of the Andes Mountains.