Brazil is considered a megadiverse country, possessing six terrestrial biomes. Brazil's twenty-six states and the Federal District are conventionally divided into five regions that correspond generally to the country's major landforms and biomes.
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Landforms of South America
The Altiplano Cundiboyacense is a high plateau located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The most important city is the capital Bogotá. The altiplano corresponds to the territory of the Muisca who flourished in ancient Colombia between 600 and 1600 CE.
The Altiplano, also called Puna, is a high plateau region in west-central South America in the area where the Andes are the widest. The bulk of the Altiplano lies in Bolivia but its northern parts lie in Peru and its southern parts lie in Chile and Argentina.
The Amazon Rainforest is a natural region and biome in northern South America that occupies the Amazon Basin, a drainage basin of the Amazon River and its tributaries in South America. Nine nations have some part of the Amazon region within their borders.
The Andean Volcanic Belt is a major volcanic belt along the South American coast. The Ring of Fire is an area in the Pacific Ocean basin where earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur due to the movement and collision of lithospheric tectonic plates.
The Andes Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western coast of South America. The Andean Region extends from Caribbean Venezuela, through the Atacama Desert to cold, windy and wet Cape Horn.
The Archipiélago de Colón (Galápagos Islands) are volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean, roughly 600 miles west of continental Ecuador. The archipelago is known for its large number of endemic species and were studied by Charles Darwin during the second voyage of HMS Beagle.
The Atacama Desert is located in northern Chile between Argentina on the west and the Pacific Ocean on the east. Sparsely populated and containing considerable mineral resources, the Atacama Desert is one of the driest places in the world.
The Atacama Plateau is an arid high plateau in the Andes of northern Argentina and extending into Chile. The "Puna de Atacama" is a cold desolate Andean tableland in northwestern Argentina and adjacent regions of Chile.
The Bolivian Andes is composed primarily of two ranges or cordilleras. The Cordillera Occidental is characterized by volcanic activity. The much older Cordillera Oriental, known as the "Cordillera Real," is an impressive snow-capped series of granite mountains.
The Borborema Plateau, also known as Serra da Borborema (Borborema Mountains), makes up the northeasternmost portion of the Brazilian Highlands. The primary watershed of the region, the plateau is the source of more than 100 rivers.